What does a nail fungus look like: symptoms, types and stages

Nail fungus is an infectious disease. This pathology occurs in children and adults and goes through two stages of its development. As a general rule, people appear in a neglected form, which complicates the treatment process. There are several types of fungi, each of which differs in additional symptoms: the main manifestations of the disease, regardless of form, are the same. When the first signs of the fungus appear, you should contact a dermatologist. Personal hygiene measures should be performed and adhered to regularly to prevent the development of the disease.

Nail fungus: a description of the disease

Nail fungus(onychomycosis) Pathological in nature of infectious nature and caused by various mycotic organisms.The fungus affects about 20% of the world's population.

Onychomycosis accounts for 15-40% of all nail diseases and occurs in 3% of the adult population, most commonly in men and children wearing tight shoes. Women rarely encounter this disease because they care for their feet more thoroughly.

The fungus occurs against the background of the following factors:

  • injury;
  • constant contact with chemicals;
  • wearing tight shoes;
  • obesity;
  • increased sweating;
  • goosefoot;
  • non-compliance with personal hygiene rules;
  • impairment of immunity;
  • taking antibiotics and other medicines;
  • endocrine diseases, gastrointestinal pathologies and HIV infection;
  • vascular disease;
  • sports activities (running, swimming, tennis and gymnastics);
  • life and work in large industrial cities (miners, etc. ).

Infection occurs during cosmetic procedures performed in beauty salons without complying with hygiene regulations. If a person uses common household items, visits public places in the form of saunas, baths, and pools, it also contributes to the appearance of the fungus. Care must be taken when touching wooden objects, as the wood has a porous structure and it is almost impossible to remove the infection. The nail fungus looks like this:

manifestation of fungus on the nails

Main manifestations and types

The symptoms of the fungus depend on the type of pathogen and the degree of damage to the nail plate. The age of the patient affects the rate of recovery. Nails are much less likely to be affected in children than in adults. Manifestations depend on the type of pathology:

Mushroom forms Signs
Normotrophic The color of the nail changes to the same thickness and gloss. First, yellow or white spots and streaks appear on the side surface of the nail plate. They start to grow without treatment and the nail plate gradually changes color. Onycholysis is noticeable in patients - the inability of the plate to grow to the nail spoon
Hypertrophic The color of the nail changes to dark yellow or gray, the thickness of the plate is at least 2 mm. This is due to the intense growth of skin flakes under the nail. Patients complain of loss of gloss. The nail begins to crumble and deform. In patients, the birds take a form similar to the karma of the birds (onychogryphosis), which causes pain while walking. The side parts are capable of causing the most destruction
Atrophic The nail plate turns gray, its gloss is lost. As the disease progresses, the disc collapses. Often the nail bed can be exposed and then skin scales can be seen above its surface. Atrophy starts slowly from the outer end towards the growth zone and nail drive
Lateral and distal These two forms occur together and quite often. You may notice that the color of the nail changes to blue-green or black and yellow grooves. It gradually disintegrates, becomes rough, and has an uneven edge. As the pathology progresses, the disc begins to deform. Sometimes the rollers may become swollen and red. If the patient has a bacterial infection, pus is released when pressed
Close The skin fold is affected. This form of the disease occurs when the cuticle is removed. The nail begins to whiten in the growth area
Complete The nail begins to collapse, break and collapse
white White spots appear that resemble dust

With nail fungus, several of the same symptoms occur:

  • itchy skin around the nail;
  • stratification;
  • crumbling and discoloration;
  • pain in the affected area.


This disease progresses slowly, going through several stages of development:

  1. Early (initial) stage.
  2. Has started.

In the first stage, the skin of the legs is affected. Itching, cracks and blisters appear between the toes. In the future, the fungus will penetrate deep into the nail and affect it. The disease can only be detected under laboratory conditions after scraping.

At an advanced stage, there is a global lesion of the nail plate. If you do not start treating the fungus at this stage, not only your nails but also your skin may be destroyed. The main symptoms of the advanced stage are:

  • crumbling nails;
  • stratification;
  • deformation.


In the treatment of fungi, drugs are used for topical application.These can be antifungal substances or varnishes. Patches can be used to exfoliate the affected nail.

If the patient has a lesion of a nail, these funds are sufficient. In case of injury to two or more nails, systemic, complex treatment should be performed. The varnish should be applied continuously for a maximum of 12 months.

Antifungal varnishes should not be used in children who are hypersensitive to any of the ingredients during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Before use, you need to remove the damaged nail, degrease the surface with a solution of water and alcohol, and then distribute the varnish. To make the nail more aesthetic, women can cover this nail with cosmetic varnish on top.

Steam your feet with water, soda and liquid soap before using antifungal agents. They should then be wiped with a towel and an ointment applied to the affected plate and adhesive plaster applied to the top to secure it.

Doctors prescribe drugs in tablet form at the advanced stage of the pathology.

This physiotherapy therapy can improve plate nutrition and increase blood circulation. As a result, the applied composition penetrates better into the depth of the nail. To ensure the effectiveness of the course, you must pass tests on days 14 and 30 after therapy.